It is possible that the race of Babylonians, or Chaldeans, was derived from a prince named Kalda. He lived in the wetlands at the mouth of the Euphrates river. He represented his subjects in the struggle for freedom from Assyria. It is believed that Nebuchadnezzar was a descendant of Kalda.
Sargon was the founder of the ancient Babylonian civilization. Out of a mixture of old Sumerian and new Semitic cultures, he created a new power. Through his conquests, he extended the early Babylonian empire to the Mediterranean. Even the island of Cyprus may have been added to the empire by him. Syria, or "the land of the Amorites", was a province of early Babylonia.
His son and successor, Naram-Sin, continued with the conquests. He added the Sinaitic peninsula to the empire. This brought the empire vast reserves of copper, from copper-mines present in that region.
The Sargon dynasty spread the Babylonian influence to the edges of Egypt.
Sayce, A. H. Babylonians and Assyrians; Life and Customs,. London: J.C. Nimmo, 1900. Print.
Image source: http://thewanderingscot.com/archives/2833